PTSD is caused by exposure to various types of trauma. A direct, firsthand experience, for example, such as assault victimization or involvement in an accident, a life-threatening illness or natural or manmade disaster can cause the type of trauma reaction seen in PTSD. Witnessing the plight of others who are in danger, suffering, or who are seriously injured or killed, as well as learning about traumatic events that others have experienced can also cause PTSD.
Exposure to the following can result in PTSD:
- The possibility or actuality of one’s own serious injury or loss of physical integrity (extreme violation)
- The possibility of one’s own death
- The possibility or actuality of another’s serious injury or loss of physical integrity
- The possibility or actuality of another’s death
Traumatic exposure causes severe emotional and psychological effects such as intense fear and helplessness. In PTSD-related trauma, one is abruptly confronted with overwhelming life circumstances and adverse consequences that induce trauma symptoms.
What other problems do people with PTSD experience?
People with PTSD may also have other problems. These include:
- Feelings of hopelessness, shame, or despair
- Depression or anxiety
- Drinking or drug problems
- Physical symptoms or chronic pain
- Employment problems
- Relationship problems, including divorce
- From Samsha.gov: Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction – Facts for Families and Friends
- From Nursingworld.org: Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for Opiate Dependence—It’s Not “Giving Drugs to Drug Addicts”
- From VA.org: From VA.org Understanding PTSD and Treatments
- From PsychiatryOnline.org: Anticraving medications for relapse prevention